August 2015 Meeting Summary

The Southern California Section of the Institute of Navigation hosted a meeting on August 18, 2015 at the John Deere facility in Torrance, CA.  About 30 people were in attendance.  The speaker was Ron Hatch, and in a departure from our usual navigation topics, the topic was Einstein’s Theory of Relativity.

Abstract of Ron’s Talk

Ron has developed a further description of the basis for his challenge to the generally accepted Theories of Relativity (special and general).  In this description, he challenges a fundamental assumption underlying the use of the Lorentz Transformation in Einstein’s special theory, i.e. that all inertial frames are symmetrical.  He finds, by invoking the conservation of momentum between inertial frames, that Special Relativity as formulated by Einstein is wrong and by invoking the conservation of energy between inertial frames, that Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity is wrong.  Ron argues that an apparent mathematical symmetry masks a real physical asymmetry and concludes that Space-Time is an invalid physical concept and that the curvature of space is not the source of gravitational force but that it is due to a gradient in the density of the local ether.  He explains why the argument of some prominent physicists that the effects of solar gravitational potential upon GPS clocks is cancelled out by the acceleration of the earth toward the sun is incorrect, i.e. that the equivalence principle is incorrectly applied.  Ron will link his theories of gravitation and critiques of relativity to GNSS and explain the genesis of this latest analysis in the light of earlier work.

Presentation slides: GPS, Clocks and Relativity dark

Biography of Ron Hatch 

Ron Hatch graduated from Seattle-Pacific University in 1962 with a degree in physics.  Ron worked at Boeing in Washington State during most of his time at Seattle Pacific.  After graduation he joined the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and worked on the original Transit navigation satellite system. He later joined several other members of that group at Magnavox, where he resumed his work on Transit, developing much of the theoretical literature for navigation satellites generally, as well as Transit, and going on to basic contributions to GNSS theory and practice. This included a very basic contribution, the Hatch Filter, which underlies the high precision applications of GNSS.  He has been awarded over 30 patents as inventor or co-inventor.  He was an early winner of the Kepler Award from the Institute of Navigation and has received many honors since, including service as the Chair of the Satellite Division and President of the Institute.  After a period as an independent consultant to Leica and other companies and government laboratories, Ron was a joint founder of NavCom Technology, later acquired by John Deere, from which he has recently retired, but for which he continues to consult on occasion. He is currently a member of the US Space Based PNT Advisory Board. Ron continues his basic research and publication in cosmology and is a prominent contributor to journals of physics which are generally outside the mainstream of academic publications.



October 2012 Meeting Summary

Donald Leimer spoke to the Southern California Section on Thursday, October 25, 2012 at John Deere. Mr. Leimer’s talk is SiRFusion™ There were about 40 in attendance. A brief bio and abstract of the talk follows. His presentation is attached.

Abstract of Mr. Leimer’s Talk: SiRFusion™ (Presentation Slides)
GPS receivers are found on nearly every smart phone today enabling a wide range of location-based services such as mapping, search, and navigation. Users expect their devices to work in all environments including indoors, parking garages, and in dense urban canyons. Recent advancements in Assisted-GPS technology have enabled improved positioning indoors, but GNSS receivers are still not sensitive enough to determine position everywhere that users carry their devices. Any solution to improving coverage and accuracy indoors must be low cost and low power.

This talk introduces a new product from CSR Technology, Inc. – SiRFusion™ based on the SiRFstarV™ location chips. This ground-breaking receiver combines the latest A-GPS and A-GLONASS advancements with Wi-Fi positioning and dead reckoning using low-cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors. Smart phones are equipped with an increasing array of MEMS sensors including accelerometers, magnetometers, gyroscopes, and barometers. The SiRFstarV chip acts as a gateway to receive input from all available MEMS sensors so that the output signals can be combined with the GPS, GLONASS, and Wi-Fi measurements. The observations from all of these sources are fused together using a Kalman Filter. Smart location management is employed to make use of the best combination of sensors at any given time in order to maximize coverage and accuracy while keeping power draw to a minimum. The result is continuous position availability in indoor environments.

To achieve these results, the system also uses data from a server for A-GPS, A-GLONASS, extended ephemeris data, and Wi-Fi positioning data. The improved coverage and accuracy indoors allows the system to crowd source the location of Wi-Fi access points indoors to a better level of accuracy than previously possible without surveying the sites. This in turn allows devices even without MEMS sensors to perform better than previously possible indoors.

Capsule Biography of Donald Leimer
Don Leimer is Vice President of Advanced Development for CSR Technology. He is currently leading new GNSS and location technology development for consumer GNSS products. He has been a major contributor to the development of two generations of SiRFstar GNSS and related wireless chips at SiRF Technology, now a part of CSR Technology. Mr. Leimer has over 40 years experience in wireless communications and GPS projects, including the GPS Phase I military program at Magnavox Advanced Products & Systems Division.

September 2012: Southern California Section Announces Kevin Rudolph Memorial Scholarship Program

As part of an outreach scholarship program, the ION is sponsoring a monetary scholarship award to eligible college/university students in the Southern California Section membership region. The Southern California Section will administer this scholarship program, in conjunction with participating colleges/universities, while the national office of the ION sponsors the monetary award. All Scholarship awards come with required activities, intended to familiarize the award recipient with navigational technologies or enhance his/her existing knowledge of navigational methods.

Download the Scholarship Application

July 2012 Meeting Summary

The Southern California Section of the Institute of Navigation held a colloquium on Thursday, July 19, 2012 on the Ploughshares (UK MOD) assertion of patents which affect the interoperability of GNSS systems previously considered settled policy. There were about 30 people in attendance. The colloquium subject is: “The Ploughshares assertion of the UK MOD patent ‘rights’ threatens GNSS interoperability. What are the equities and what are the options?”

Agenda for the Meeting
11:45: Framing the Issue: History; Expectations circa 2003; Expectations 2012; Differences and Consequences to GNSS, including Galileo, Compass and Glonass.
12:05: Equities: pro UK MOD; anti UK MOD (e.g.: what did other system providers contribute without compensation expectation and how clean are the claims by Pratt and Owen?)
12:20: Technical Options: (can we contain the effects with feasible changes in the system?)
12:40: Political Options: (do we have leverage in uncommitted arrangements (quid pro quo))? Where are our DOD and DOS masters on the subject?
12:50: Action Items and Next Steps; Industry and USG Resources: ION or RION? Follow-up meetings and outreach to today’s absentees.


Thomas A. Stansell (Presentation Slides) is well known to all, a Kepler Award Laureate, Fellow of the ION, etc., has been very active in dealing with this subject as a public citizen and as a consultant to various USG entities, including those directly involved in this matter. He will lead the discussion.

Richard G. Keegan, GPS system design pioneer with multiple GNSS and Communications Systems patent awards has participated in the various committees and in technical support to the decision makers on this subject and has a detailed understanding of the history and technical factors in the controversy.

Jerry E. Knight has been deeply involved in patent litigation, GNSS system design, pioneering many innovations in system architecture and signal processing software. He is an alumnus of Magnavox, Leica, SiRF ( where he was Chief Engineer and where he led the patent litigation and more recently of NavCom Technology ( John Deere). He is an independent consultant.

February 2012 Meeting Summary

Andrei Shkel spoke to the Southern California Section on Monday, February 27, 2012 at John Deere. Dr Shkel’s talk is Precision Navigation and Timing Enabled by Microtechnology: Are We There Yet? There were 20 in attendance. A brief bio and abstract of the talk follows. His presentation is attached.

Abstract of Dr. Shkel’s talk: (Presentation Slides)
Are we there yet? After about two decades of harmonic investment in developments, this is a question impatiently raised over-and-over by potential users of “small technology” for Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) applications. It is clear that some significant advances have been made over the years, and we see a footprint of the technology in an ever-growing consumer electronic market full of interactive products enabled by inertial and timing micro-technologies. These products include accelerometers for gaming applications, gyros for auto safety, and resonators for clocks – just to name a few. The question remains, however: Is the technology really on the level of what we consider to be precision navigation and timing? In reality, “small technology” remains several orders of magnitude short with respect to long-term stability, dynamic range, and accuracy. Why? We don’t yet have a complete answer, and we are still working hard to disprove the statement that “high-performance inertial micro-instrument is a contradiction in terms.” It is indisputable that we can make things small, but we cannot make them sufficiently precise and uniform. We know we can deposit materials layer-by-layer, but we cannot make micro-devices truly 3-D, as is readily accomplished using conventional machining. We consistently have an excellent case for low-cost and bulk fabrication, but we cannot seriously challenge “boutique” processes when it comes to achieving precision, performance, and stability. We need new knowledge regarding the dimensional stability of materials. We need a better understanding of scaling, surface effects, and fabrication imperfections. PNT applications demand unusual new fabrication technologies and new materials with special properties. To achieve the required phenomenal accuracy, we need a new wave of innovation in design and refinement of many emerging electromechanical transducers. A new wave of innovation in PNT will likely rely on yet-to-be-utilized physics, highly specialized fabrication technologies and batch assembly techniques, selective wafer-level trimming and polishing, a combination of passive and active calibration techniques strategically implemented right on-chip, and introduction of innovative test technologies. This presentation will discuss the growing interest within the Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the development of a miniature, self-sufficient navigation system that might be realized through deep integration of timing, inertial navigation units, and other non-inertial sensors. A new wave of innovation is underway focused on bringing to life revolutionary ideas and fabrication technologies on micro/nano/pico/femto/atto scales, packaging, ultra-low-power electronics, innovative algorithms, never-before-explored architectures, and exploitation of new integration paradigms.

Capsule Biography of Stephen Fossi:
Dr. Shkel serves as a program manager in the Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) at DARPA. His professional interests, reflected in more than 150 publications and two books, include solid-state sensors and actuators, MEMS-based neuroprosthetics, sensor-based intelligence, and control theory.

He is on leave from his faculty position as a professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of California, Irvine, where he is also the Director of the UCI Microsystems Laboratory.

Dr. Shkel is an Editor of the Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems. He served as a guest editor for two special issues of the IEEE Sensors Journal, the 2008-2009 Vice President of the IEEE Sensors Council, and the General Chair of the 2005 IEEE Sensors Conference.

He is the holder of 16 U.S. and international patents (with 13 pending) on micromachined angle-measuring gyroscopes, wide-bandwidth rate gyroscopes, design and fabrication of light manipulators and tunable optical filters and hybrid micromachining processes.

Dr. Shkel is the recipient of the 2009 Technical Achievement Award of the IEEE Sensors Council, 2005 National Science Foundation CAREER Award, the 2002 George E. Brown, Jr., Award, and the 2006 Fariborz Maseeh Outstanding Faculty Research Award.

Dr. Andrei M. Shkel received the Diploma degree (with excellence) in Applied Mechanics and Control from Lomonosov’s Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, in 1991, and his Doctor of Philosophy in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1997. He completed his postdoctoral study in 1999 at Berkeley Sensors and Actuators Center, University of California, Berkeley.

January 2012 Meeting Summary

Stephen Fossi spoke to the Southern California Section about Chip Scale Atomic Clocks on Thursday, January 12, 2012 at NavCom Technology. There were 25 in attendance. A brief bio and abstract of the talk follows. His presentation is attached.

Abstract of Mr. Fossi’s talk: (Presentation Slides)
Steve’s talk described Symmetricom’s SA.45s Chip Scale Atomic Clock. Consuming only 120 mW, the SA.45s CSAC brings the accuracy and stability of an atomic clock to portable applications for the first time. The talk will explain, at a high level, the physics behind the CSAC, and answer the most common questions asked about the CSAC. The product began as a DARPA project, so we will also take a brief look at its development history.

Much of Mr. Fossi’s talk focused on applications.

Capsule Biography of Stephen Fossi:
Steve Fossi is the Director of New Business Development for Symmetricom’s Government and Enterprise Business Unit. He has been with Symmetricom for 4 years. He started at Symmetricom as the Sales Manager for the company’s Space, Defense, and Avionics product line, and then moved to business development, where he has focused on introducing the Chip Scale Atomic Clock to the market.

Prior to Symmetricom, Steve was at Hewlett-Packard and its spinoff Agilent Technologies, for 27 years. His entire time at HP/Agilent was spent in RF and microwave measurements. He began his career in applications and marketing, where he helped introduce such iconic products as the HP8340A Synthesized Sweep Oscillator, the HP8510A Microwave Network Analyzer, and the HP8753A RF Network Analyzer. Fossi also served as a project manager, leading a group that developed complete solutions for measuring antenna radiation patterns and radar cross section. He also led a team that developed the HP84000 RFIC tester, designed to test the chip sets that went into cell phones. Driven by the cell phone revolution of the 1990’s, the HP84000 became a major product line for the company, and Fossi became the general manager and vice president for the division in charge of the product line, a role he continued when Agilent Technologies was spun off from HP. Later at Agilent, Fossi served as the general manager of a division that made RF & microwave test systems for the defense industry, and he was also the R&D manager for Agilent’s PNA/ENA network analyzers.

During his HP/Agilent management career, Fossi was part of an HP management team that was the subject of a Harvard Business School case study, which is still taught at HBS today. He also served as a Foreign Service Employee, living in the Netherlands for a few years during one of his HP assignments.

November 2011 Meeting Summary

Both Mr. Stansell’s and Dr. Galyean’s spoke to the Southern California Section about An Update on LightSquared Technical and Politico-Legal Status on Tuesday, November 22th 2011 at NavCom Technology. There were 31 in attendance. A brief bio and abstract of the talk follows.

Abstract of Mr. Stansell’s and Dr. Galyean’s talk: (LightSquared Presentation Slides)
Last March, Tom gave the So. Cal Section of the ION a comprehensive overview with considerable technical detail on the probable effects on GPS of the proposed FCC waiver for LightSquared’s use of L band spectra. Since that time, LightSquared, the GPS industry, DOD, DHS, FAA, and NASA, to name a few of the agencies involved, have conducted tests and separately filed reports with the FCC and/or NTIA, which is the spectrum manager for federal agencies

Some of those reports have been released while others have not. However, much is known about the general outcomes and testimony to Congress by various interested parties, like General Shelton, Commander of the USAF Space Command, representatives of NTIA, FCC, user and industry groups and LightSquared have made headlines and have been seen on CSPAN.

The intense public relations activities and media attention that have surrounded this issue have often diverted attention from the publicly relevant issues such as the trade-offs between the need for lower cost broadband internet and wireless service and the integrity of GNSS systems.

Tom has been prominent in leading panel discussions on this subject with all four sides represented (GPS users, GPS industry, the regulators and LightSquared) and Paul has led the NavCom and John Deere intensive and extensive modeling, analysis and testing work and is a member of working groups on the subject. Like Tom, Paul also has considerable collateral knowledge of the dynamics of the regulatory processes and advises John Deere accordingly.

The information and insights these two leaders can give us will help us to understand the issues beyond the technical factors but including such as well; these technical issues have become clearer with the testing programs and more complex at the same time. For instance, LightSquared has formally proposed to the FCC that they modify their original frequency plans and power distributions for some period of time to allow the user environments and equipment to evolve into compatibility with the LightSquared signals. Another instance of the increased complexity is that one prominent GNSS supplier claims that LSQ is a boon to GNSS and that they have affordable filters which will immediately mitigate the effects of (at least) the currently proposed spectrum usage by LightSquared.

We expect a much more balanced and meaningful understanding of the then-current state of play for our members after this dual presentation.

Capsule Biography of Tom Stansell:
Tom Stansell heads Stansell Consulting. He spent 8 years with the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, 25 years with Magnavox (Staff VP), and 5 years with Leica Geosystems (VP). In those roles he pioneered Transit and GPS navigation and survey products. He has served on the WAAS Independent Review Board (2000); led technical development of the GPS L2C signal (2001); and coordinated the GPS L1C project (2004 – 2006).

He is a member of International Compatibility and Interoperability Working Groups and supports ICG activities for the U.S. State Department.

Awards and Honors:
ION Awards: Weems Award (1996), Fellow (1999), Kershner (PLANS-2000), GPS JPO Navstar Award (2002), and Johannes Kepler (2003).

Tom was technical chair (’84, ’86, and ’88) and general chair (’94, ’96, and ’98) of PLANS conferences, technical chair of ION GPS-91, and general chair of ION GPS-92. He is a past ION Western Regional VP.

Capsule Biography of Paul Galyean:
Paul is Director of Advanced Engineering at NavCom Technology, a subsidiary of Deere and Company. Prior to his service at NavCom and John Deere, he worked at Leica and Magnavox in integrated navigation systems. His satellite navigation experience reaches back into the Transit (NNSS) era and he has developed systems and receivers for aircraft, marine and land PNT applications. At NavCom, he managed the development of a certified aviation receiver and the development of the technology used in current Deere and NavCom products. He has managed the StarFire network, which provides Deere users with sub-decimeter-level navigation. He was recently the lead for the High Precision team in the FCC-mandated testing of LightSquared interference with GPS. He holds a PhD in Mathematics from UCLA.

September 2011 Meeting Summary

Dr. Chun Yang spoke to the Southern California Section about Signals of Opportunity for Positioning on Thursday, 29 September, 2011 at NavCom Technology. There were 20 in attendance. A brief bio and abstract of the talk follows, and the slides used during the meeting are attached.

Abstract of Dr. Yang’s Talk: (Presentation Slides)
There are strong requirements for the development of alternative navigation technologies for environments and areas in which GNSS signals are not available or are impaired.

These requirements exist not only because users desire similar accuracies for personal navigation in urban and indoor environments as those they currently enjoy in regions of open sky but also because such alternatives will enable many potentially lucrative location-based services.

The extensive and intensive spread of high definition terrestrial broadcast networks and wireless communication networks (e.g. Light Squared and other LTE/4G systems) presents both challenges (interference) and opportunities (information source) for positioning.

In this presentation, we will discuss system design issues for positioning with signals of opportunity including vertical dimensionality, non line-of-sight (NLOS) signals, the effect of the number of independent signal sources (GDOP), and source timing and synchronization among others. Both parametric and non-parametric methods for positioning with signals of opportunity will be described. We will present a number of signal examples including DTV, CDMA, and GSM as well as a number of applications with experimental results. A list of still-open issues will be discussed as will the current assessment for such systems as well as directions for continuing research.

Capsule Biography of Dr. Chun Yang
Dr. Chun Yang has been with Sigtem Technology, Inc., since 1994 where he works on adaptive array and baseband signal processing for GNSS receivers and radar systems as well as on nonlinear state estimation with applications in target tracking, integrated inertial navigation, and information fusion. Dr. Yang is also an adjunct professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Miami University. He is the co-inventor of ten issued and pending U.S. patents. Dr. Yang received his Docteur en Science from Université de Paris-Sud, Orsay, France, in Sciences Physiques in 1989 and his Bachelor of Engineering from Northeastern University, Shenyang, China, in 1984. He is the co-author of an ION-GNSS best presentation paper and an ION AM/IEEE PLANS best track paper, and the co-recipient of ION Samuel M. Burka Award.

August 2011 Meeting Summary

Professor Michael S. Braasch spoke to the Southern California Section about Iron Stomachs and White Knuckles: Navigation Flight Testing at the Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center on Tuesday, 30 August, 2011 at NavCom Technology. There were 18 in attendance. A brief bio and abstract of the talk follows, and the slides used during the meeting are attached.

Abstract of Professor Braasch’s Talk
Slides: Iron Stomachs and White Knuckles: Navigation Flight Testing at the Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center
Since its’ founding in 1963, the Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center (AEC) has been on the cutting edge of navigation and landing system research. The AEC is somewhat unusual in that it is an academic institution with its own fleet of flight test aircraft. Over the decades, these aircraft and the crews that fly them have amassed a wealth of experience that can only be obtained ‘in the air.’ The AEC’s DC-3 served as the flight-test platform for the world’s first commercial GPS receiver back in the early 1980’s. Guidance, navigation and control packages destined for installation in military unmanned aerial vehicles are first put through their paces in the AEC’s ex-Soviet fighter-trainer, the AeroVodochody L-29 Delfin. From flying synthetic vision displays up in Juneau’s Gastineau channel to automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) system flights down in the Gulf of Mexico, the AEC has been involved in taking navigation research out of the classroom and lab and making the systems work in the field and in the air. This presentation will cover a handful of the many flight test stories in the AEC’s history. What kind of navigation engineer do you need for a flight test with 6g turns? One that’s eager, healthy and preferably has not eaten all day!

Capsule Biography of Michael Braasch
Dr. Michael S. Braasch is the Thomas Professor of Engineering in the School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Ohio University. For the past 26 years Mike has been a member of the Avionics Engineering Center, also at Ohio University. Since 1985 he has performed research on a wide variety of navigation and landing systems such as the Instrument Landing System (ILS), the Microwave Landing System (MLS), VHF Omni-Range (VOR), Loran-C, Distance Measuring Equipment (DME), Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) and GPS. He is internationally recognized for his work in characterizing GPS multipath and is one of the originators of the integrated multipath-limiting antenna for GPS. Mike has served as a visiting scientist at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands and has lectured for NATO AGARD. He has co-authored chapters for the AIAA books on GPS in addition to numerous conference papers and journal articles. Mike is a Fellow of the Institute of Navigation, a senior member of the IEEE, a licensed professional engineer in the State of Ohio, an instrument-rated commercial pilot, and is the co-founder of GPSoft LLC.

July 2011 Meeting Summary

Dr. Phil Diamond spoke to the Southern California Section about On the Origins of the Global Positioning System on Thursday, July 28th 2011 at NavCom Technology. There were 40 in attendance. A brief bio and abstract of the talk follows.

Abstract of Dr. Diamond’s Talk:
Phil would like to have an informal discussion during which he will provide an overview of the early days of GPS development, including the historically important events, organizations and personalities involved, including his own personal contribution to the creation and development of the system. This is a rather special opportunity to hear from one of the original team. The Southern California Section management will try to have several other pioneers in attendance.

Ten years of development were required to achieve the Global Positioning System, beginning in 1963, by The Aerospace Corporation, the USAF Space Systems Division (Space and Missile Systems Organization [SAMSO]), and a number of other DoD agencies and several industry contractors.

With formal DoD approval in 1974, funded development contractor effort began towards a satellite launch in 1978. The ten years of development can be viewed, in retrospect, as occurring in five overlapping phases:

  1. Concept Feasibility: 1963-1964
  2. System Preliminary Formulation and Identification of Technology Requirements: 1964-1968
  3. Technology Development and Demonstration: 1966-1970
  4. System Definition: 1970-1974
  5. Mission and Operations Analysis, and Advocacy (towards formal DoD approval): 1968-1973

This ION session is intended to illuminate, from a historical point of view, as outlined above, how we came to the formal DoD approved GPS Program. We will discuss the following subjects in reference to the above:

  1. How the basic concept came to the author and how its fundamental feasibility was demonstrated.
  2. The results of the System Formulation and Technology Requirements activity.
  3. Some of the principal Development and Demonstration projects.
  4. The nature of the System Definition functions.
  5. The myriad of hoops through which we had to jump in order to get to final approval and contracting for the Program.

Featured will be naming of the principal contributors, the various agencies involved, and their roles. Some anecdotes will be offered which illuminate personalities and attitudes of the agencies.

Capsule Biography of Dr. Phil Diamond 
Dr. Diamond was born in 1930 and was raised in The Bronx, New York City. He graduated with a B.S.M.E. degree in 1951 from New York University. He took a position at Bell Aircraft Corporation in Buffalo, N.Y. in the Rocket Division and became the Director of the Hydraulics Research Laboratory. While there, he graduated from the University of Buffalo with an M.S.M.E. degree. His thesis was entitled “Flow in Short Tubes” (as in rocket motor injectors). From 1953 to 1958, Dr. Diamond attended Purdue University and was employed as a Research Assistant in the Rocket Laboratory, graduating in 1958 with a Ph.D. degree. His thesis was entitled “The Performance of the 90% Hydrogen Peroxide-JP-5 Rocket Propellant Combination”. After three years at Convair in Ft. Worth, Texas, he joined The Aerospace Corporation in Los Angeles. He rose to become the General Manager, Development Planning Division and retired in 1992. From 1992 to 1998, Dr. Diamond was employed as a consultant to various aerospace companies. During his employment at The Aerospace Corporation, he also contributed as a member of several National Committees, including the NASA Space Science and Technology Advisory Committee, the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, The Army Scientific Advisory Board, and the National Academy of Sciences Naval Studies Board. Phil was married in 1953; he has four children and ten grandchildren. He and his wife, Enid, a retired Professor of Mathematics, live in Palos Verdes Estates, California. His main hobby (other than his grandchildren) has been designing, building, and flying radio controlled model aircraft.